While searching online for examples of natural selection I found something very fascinating: bacteria that actually adapted to eat nylon products.
A strain of flavobacterium that feeds on nylon was discovered in 1975 by Japanese scientists, specifically in a pond filled with factory waste. Nylon’s only been around since 1935, so any lifeform that feeds specifically on it would have to have cropped up relatively recently.
Needless to say, this discovery has been used a lot in arguments against creationism and intelligent design. I won’t get too deep into my beliefs in the issue (short version: I’m still a Christian, but I do believe in evolution and natural selection), but I find the existence of the bacteria more fascinating than the argument it’s used for. Could this mean that nature could adjust to deal with any of our waste products? Could evolution make pollution less of an issue? Really, this is fascinating stuff!